On the Development Status and Trend of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
[Abstract] With the progress of world science and technology, computer technology is changing with each passing day. Artificial intelligence and cloud computing have been realized. The era of intelligence, information and automation has come. Unmanned aircraft is the product of new technology. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can effectively use advanced core technologies such as artificial intelligence, automatic driving and signal processing. Due to their advantages of small size, long range and unmanned driving, UAVs are now widely used in the military field for detection, interference, battlefield target destruction, etc. With excellent results, they have attracted the attention of military management departments of various countries. This paper studies the current situation of UAV development and its possible development trend in the future, trying to unlock the veil of UAV and let more people know about UAV.
[Key Words] Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; The current situation of development; Development trend; Military field With the development of science and technology, people have begun to explore unknown fields. Faced with high-risk and high-intensity tasks, people begin to use unmanned aerial vehicles to replace manned aircraft to carry out the tasks. This is also the general trend and the situation is forced. Unmanned aircraft is actually a kind of equipment controlled by radio remote control. Some of them are controlled by pre-programmed programs and are also called remotely piloted aircraft. At present, it is developing rapidly in the military field and has been widely used in some developed countries. In this paper, the research on UAV is mainly based on military UAV, because it represents the most advanced UAV development technology.
1. Analysis on the Development Status of Military UAV The research and use of unmanned aerial vehicles first appeared in the United States. In 1909, the world’s first unmanned aerial vehicle was tested in the United States and achieved good results. In the next few years, Britain and Germany also began to study unmanned aircraft, and in 1917 they successively succeeded in this technical research. Since the advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), the military field has shown great interest. At present, the research on UAVs is mostly for military purposes. In the 1960s, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) began to be used in the military field. In the US-Vietnam war, the United States used such UAVs for military reconnaissance, air strikes and target destruction. However, the most classic use of unmanned aerial vehicles belongs to the Israelis. In the Fourth Middle East War, Israel successfully destroyed Egypt’s ground-to-air missile base along the canal using BQM-74C unmanned aerial vehicle. During Israel’s invasion of Lebanon, some important missile bases in Lebanon were destroyed by using fierce dog drones. The United States has also used a large number of unmanned aircraft in its invasion of Afghanistan and attacks on terrorist organizations, and has also received certain effects in its use. At the end of the 20th century, many countries have developed military UAVs in a new era, and have applied them to the military field in succession. They are used for battlefield intelligence reconnaissance, low-altitude reconnaissance and cover, battlefield weather forecast, situation assessment, electronic interference and confrontation, target location and destruction, etc. To a certain extent, they have changed the original forms of military warfare and military mobilization.
2. Research on the Types of Military UAVs With the development of science and technology, the development of military unmanned aerial vehicles is maturing day by day. Compared with manned aircrafts, it has considerable advantages. For example, compared with manned aircrafts, unmanned aerial vehicles are simple to operate, cost less in materials, and the key is that no pilots can operate them in person and the casualty rate is low. Unmanned aerial vehicles, as the name implies, have better concealment, are not easy to leak, have higher authenticity in obtaining information, and have strong vitality. In addition, the UAV has a short running distance and is easy to take off and land.
As far as the current research on unmanned aerial vehicles is concerned, there are more than 30 countries that have mastered this technology and more than 200 types of unmanned aerial vehicles. Military unmanned aerial vehicles have been widely used in the military field. According to their functions, military unmanned aircraft can be divided into the following types: target aircraft: mainly used for training pilots and air defense troops and testing the performance of other air defense weapons; Reconnaissance aircraft: mainly used for collecting and processing battlefield related intelligence; Bait machine: mainly induces enemy radar to carry out air strikes; Electronic countermeasure machine: mainly carries out electronic interference and information detection on enemy planes, command systems, etc. Attack planes: mainly target attack and battlefield destruction; Fighter: Used for air strikes or ground strikes; Other UAVs: such as laser irradiation, nuclear radiation reconnaissance, etc.
3. Research on the Future Development Trend of Military UAV Although peace and development are the main features of contemporary society, many countries have not slowed down their pace of national defense construction, but are constantly upgrading military weapons and other national defense infrastructure construction. Military aircraft has its own huge advantages and has been pursued and studied in many countries. The war in the new era is no longer a contest between conventional weapons, but a contest between science and technology. The use of military unmanned aerial vehicles in the military field is also expanding. Many high-risk and high-intensity manned aircraft missions are being replaced by unmanned aircraft. In addition, unmanned aerial vehicles are also beginning to try to work on missions that were not previously involved by manned aircraft in the military field. For this reason, the use of military unmanned aerial vehicles is now more extensive. Reconnaissance, assessment, strike, attack, cover, support and rescue, etc., are playing more and more prominent roles in modern battlefields and their practical value is rising steadily. The development direction and trend of future military unmanned aerial vehicles mainly include the following aspects:
3.1 Miniaturized UAV Unmanned aerial vehicles are used more and more widely in the military field. Due to their small size and low cost, more unmanned aerial vehicles will be needed in the future battlefields, and they will be used even in tandem if conditions permit, so as to meet the needs of military battlefields. This requires that the development of unmanned aerial vehicles should emphasize miniaturization design, optimize functions while reducing costs, and realize established combat tasks and targets.
3.2 High-altitude and high-speed unmanned aerial vehicles For the development of unmanned aerial vehicles, new high-altitude and long-range power devices are needed, such as liquid (gas) cooled turbocharged piston engines, turbofan engines, rotor engines, etc. The unmanned aerial vehicle can work under high-risk and high-intensity conditions, and can complete high-altitude operation and high-altitude operation.
3.3 Invisible UAV For the existing unmanned aerial vehicles, there are stealth but the effect is not good. In order to achieve high concealment, many countries are tackling this problem. High concealment materials and anti-noise control are carried out step by step, which is also a necessary condition to improve the operational efficiency and battlefield viability of unmanned aerial vehicles.
3.4 Attacking UAVs Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have many uses, but future UAVs need strong aggressiveness. Such attacks are all-round and include ground attack, air attack, air confrontation, missile interception, target targeting attack, etc.
With the wide application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the military field, their development is extremely rapid. In terms of technology research and development, military UAVs have entered a new period, and the high-profile trend in the future is unstoppable.
Future Development Prospect of Military UAV Civil Servants’ Home, September 24, 2010 With the development of high and new technologies such as computer, artificial intelligence, automatic driving and signal processing, and the successful development of various new equipment, military unmanned aerial vehicle has developed into a platform capable of reconnaissance, electronic interference, battlefield target damage effect evaluation and other uses, and has been highly valued by various countries. This paper gives a general introduction to the development and application of military UAVs, and makes a brief forecast of the development trend of military UAVs in the future.
Key Words: Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Operational Application and Development
Replacing manned aircraft with unmanned aerial vehicles to carry out high-risk combat missions is an important aspect of development in today’s international space field. Unmanned aerial vehicle, also known as unmanned aerial vehicle or remotely piloted aircraft, is a kind of unmanned aerial vehicle controlled by radio remote control equipment or controlled by pre-programmed programs. It has many advantages that many manned aircraft do not have. It can carry out various tasks such as combat and training support, and has broad military application prospects. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used in recent local wars, and will be used more and more in future battlefields, becoming the focus of the development of weapons and equipment in the world’s major military powers.
II. The development and operational application of military unmanned aerial vehicles
In 1909, the first unmanned aerial vehicle was tested in the United States. In 1917, Britain and Germany also successfully developed unmanned remote control aircraft. Unmanned aerial vehicles were directly used in the war, which began in the 1960s and 1970s when US troops invaded Vietnam. The most classic UAV combat application was created by the Israelis. In the fourth Middle East War in 1973, Israel used a large number of U.S. BQM-74C multipurpose unmanned aerial vehicles along the Suez Canal to simulate the combat fleet, covering the ultra-low altitude penetration of fighter planes, and successfully destroyed Egypt’s ground-to-air missile base deployed along the canal. During Israel’s invasion of Lebanon in 1982, the Israeli army sent “fierce dogs” unmanned aerial vehicles to induce the radar of Syria’s ground-to-air missile base to turn on and launch a large number of ground-to-air missiles, creating conditions for destroying the base. In the 1991 Gulf War and Kosovo War, unmanned aerial vehicles from the United States, Britain, France, Canada, Israel and other countries appeared on the battlefield one after another. They were used for medium and low altitude reconnaissance and long-term battlefield surveillance, electronic countermeasures, situation assessment, target location, collection of meteorological data, rescue of pilots and distribution of leaflets, etc. They provided an important basis for multinational forces to understand the battlefield situation in real time and evaluate the effect of air strikes. They also played an important role in jamming and suppressing Iraq’s air defense system and communication system.
III. Types and Characteristics of Military UAVs 3.1 type Currently, nearly 30 countries such as the United States, Russia, Israel, Britain and South Africa are engaged in research and production of unmanned aerial vehicles. The number of unmanned aerial vehicles has increased to more than 200, with a wide variety of types and uses. The main uses of military UAVs are:
Target drone: simulates the flight state of aircraft, missiles and other various aircrafts. It is mainly used to evaluate the performance of various aviation (anti-air) weapons and train fighter pilots and air defense weapon operators.
Reconnaissance UAV: Conduct strategic, campaign and tactical reconnaissance, monitor the battlefield and provide intelligence for the troops’ operations.
Bait UAV: lure enemy radar and other electronic reconnaissance equipment to switch on and obtain relevant information; The simulation shows the false target, entices the enemy air defense weapon to shoot, attracts the enemy fire, covers own fleet to penetrate.
Electronic countermeasure unmanned aerial vehicle: reconnaissance and interference to enemy aircraft, command and communication system, ground radar and various electronic equipment.
Attack UAVs: Attack and intercept ground and air targets. Attacking UAVs carry small and powerful precision-guided weapons, laser weapons or anti-radiation missiles, attack important targets such as enemy radar, communication command equipment, tanks and intercept tactical missiles in boost phase.
Combat UAV: the speed of combat UAV will reach mach 12 ~ 15, which can be used for ground attack, air combat and anti-tactical missiles.
Unmanned aerial vehicles for other purposes: Unmanned aerial vehicles can also be used for target identification, laser irradiation, air relay stations for long-range data transmission, anti-submarine, artillery correction and measurement of distant high-altitude atmosphere, as well as reconnaissance of chemical, bacterial pollution and nuclear radiation.
3.2 Characteristics of Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles With the rapid development of modern information technology, microelectronic technology and new material technology, military unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied unprecedentedly. Countries attach importance to the development of military UAVs mainly for the following reasons:
(1) the price is low, not afraid of casualties. Unmanned aerial vehicles are simple in design and construction, small in size, light in weight, convenient to use, easy to operate and maintain, and their development costs, production costs and maintenance support costs are much lower than those of manned aircraft, and can also save a lot of personnel training costs. In addition, with the advent and application of some high-tech equipment, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been able to perform some combat tasks that were previously accomplished by manned combat aircraft, such as air combat and ground attack.
(2) Good concealment and strong vitality. Compared with manned aircraft, its volume, weight and reflection area are much smaller than the latter. In addition, its unique and exquisite design and the coating with excellent invisibility on the surface of the aircraft make its exposure rate decrease almost geometrically. Unmanned aerial vehicles are not restricted by human factors, such as overload factors, so they can fly to the speed, height and range suitable for their characteristics to the maximum extent. They can also increase concealment and improve survivability by means of super-accelerated lifting, inverted flight, sharp turn flight, etc.
Even under severe weather conditions, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can penetrate into dangerous areas very effectively and carry out surveillance and reconnaissance for a long time to obtain various intelligence information, and can transmit target images in real time to capture the advantage of intelligence information, thus mastering the initiative in war.
(3) Easy take-off and landing and flexible operation. Unmanned aerial vehicles are small in size and light in weight, and their sliding distance is much shorter than that of manned aircraft, and their requirements are not as strict as those of aircraft carrier landing decks.
IV. Future Development Trend of Military UAV The mission scope of modern military UAVs has been expanded from traditional aerial reconnaissance, battlefield observation and damage assessment to battlefield suppression, ground attack, interception of cruise missiles, even air combat and other fields. Unmanned aerial vehicles not only support manned fighter planes, but also act as replacements for manned planes in many cases. In the future, unmanned aerial vehicles will develop in the following five directions. Home of Civil Servants
(1) Miniaturized UAV. Give full play to the characteristics of low cost of unmanned aerial vehicles, develop and apply a large number of miniaturized unmanned aerial vehicles to meet the needs of army company and platoon short-range tactical reconnaissance, and complete battlefield surveillance, target reconnaissance, damage assessment and other tasks.
(2) High-altitude and high-speed unmanned aerial vehicles. High-altitude and high-speed unmanned aerial vehicles need new high-altitude and long-range power devices, such as liquid (gas) cooled turbocharged piston engines, turbofan engines, rotor engines, etc. It can perform reconnaissance missions faster and safer than ordinary unmanned aerial vehicles.
(3) Invisible UAV. In order to improve the survivability of UAV in battlefield, stealth shape design technology is adopted in aircraft design, stealth material technology is adopted in materials, and phase cancellation technology is adopted to reduce the probability of detection by radar, infrared and noise detection equipment.
(4) Attacking UAVs on the ground. Attacking UAVs on the ground can be divided into disposable attacking UAVs and reusable attacking UAVs. One-off attack UAVs carry offensive warhead when carrying out reconnaissance missions, and can carry out real-time attacks when important temporary targets of the enemy are found in the reconnaissance process. UAVs directly hit the targets, thus realizing “combination of investigation and strike”, giving full play to the operational efficiency of weapons and equipment, and reducing the possibility of delaying aircraft due to calling fire. Reusable attack unmanned aerial vehicle refers to a missile, usually active or semi-active, which is hung outside the aircraft’s warhead. When the aircraft finds and locks the target, the ground personnel issues an attack command, and the missile disengages from the launcher, flies to the target and destroys it. After the UAV returns, it can be used again with additional missiles.
(5) Air Combat UAV. Air combat unmanned aerial vehicles require higher intelligence. Although the United States has made some research and experiments on air-to-air combat unmanned aerial vehicles and achieved some results, the air fleet combat is complicated and there are many problems such as multi-machine control, control and command coordination, and cooperative combat between unmanned aerial vehicles and ground firepower. Therefore, the development of air combat UAV is a long-term research topic.
V. concluding remarks With the increase of importance attached to the development of unmanned aerial vehicles and the increase of research and development investment in various countries in the world, the development of military unmanned aerial vehicles is bound to enter a brand-new period. Its future application fields will be further expanded with more and more equipment and unprecedented technological development.
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